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中国学科发展战略·新型飞行器

中国学科发展战略·新型飞行器

  本战略研究报告是中国科学院部署的力学学科关于固体力学及 其各分支领域、学科前沿的战略研究报告。本报告以“新型飞行器 中的关键力学问题”为主要研究内容,并不仅仅局限在固体力学, 而是拓宽到整个力学学科与航空航天领域的交叉,通过需求牵引带 动科学研究和学科发展,提出未来 5~10 年力学学科在航空航天领 域的重点发展方向。 本战略研究报告共十八章。第一章“绪论”回顾了力学与航空 航天不可分割的发展历史,较为全面地介绍了当今若干种重要新型 飞行器(如新型运载器、新型航天器、新型航空器、临近空间飞行 器等)的国内外发展态势,从空气动力学、固体力学、动力学与控 制以及试验和数值模拟等方面总结了新型飞行器对力学的新需求和 新挑战,并给出未来发展的思考和建议。
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 中国科学院

 总序 ····························································································· i  


前言 ··························································································· vii  


摘要 ···························································································· xi  


Abstract ······················································································ xv  


  第一章  绪论 ·································································· 1  


         第一节  力学与航空航天 ························································· 1  


         第二节  新型飞行器发展态势 ··················································· 3  


                  一、国际上新型飞行器发展态势 ········································ 3  


                  二、我国新型飞行器发展态势与任务使命 ·························· 21  


         第三节  新型飞行器对力学的新需求和新挑战 ···························· 22  


                  一、空气动力学 ··························································· 23  


                  二、固体力学 ······························································ 25  


                  三、动力学与控制 ························································ 26  


                   四、试验与数值模拟 ····················································· 26  


         第四节  未来发展思考和建议 ················································· 27  


         参考文献 ············································································ 28  


  第二章  先进战斗机气动设计的发展与挑战 ·························· 30  


         第一节  引言 ······································································ 30  


         第二节  目前气动设计的研发体系 ··········································· 31  


                  一、气动设计的任务和手段 ············································ 31  


                  二、CFD 的发展 ·························································· 34  


                  三、风洞试验的创新 ····················································· 36  


      第三节  当前面临的需求与挑战 ·············································· 37  


             一、气动与“X”综合优化设计 ······································· 37  


             二、精益敏捷的气动设计流程提升 ··································· 38  


             三、减阻设计和阻力的精确确定 ······································ 39  


              四、非定常气动力 ························································ 40  


             五、流动控制技术 ························································ 41  


      第四节  结束语 ··································································· 42  


      参考文献 ············································································· 42  


第三章  空气动力学的新问题 ··········································· 43  


      第一节  引言······································································· 43  


      第二节  为什么会有新问题 ···················································· 44  


      第三节  新问题是什么 ·························································· 48  


      参考文献 ············································································· 49  


第四章  高超声速飞行器气动特性与湍流问题 ······················ 50  


      第一节  问题提出 ································································ 50  


      第二节  相关研究发展态势 ···················································· 52  


             一、复杂多效应耦合作用 ··············································· 52  


             二、流动转捩与层流分离问题 ········································· 57  


             三、飞行器气动布局与动态特性 ······································ 59  


      第三节  当前面临的需求和挑战 ·············································· 62  


      第四节  未来发展建议 ·························································· 64  


      参考文献 ············································································· 65  


第五章  高超声速气动热力学问题 ····································· 67  


      第一节  背景需求 ································································ 67  


             一、发展大气层内高速飞行器的需求 ································ 70  


             二、可重复使用天地往返运输系统的需求 ·························· 71  


             三、载人航天和深空探测未来发展的需求 ·························· 72  


      第二节  国外研究现状和发展态势 ··········································· 73  


      第三节  国内研究现状和发展态势 ··········································· 75  


      第四节  关键问题和挑战 ······················································· 76  


              一、高温气体与非平衡效应及其建模 ································ 76  


              二、非平衡流场的地面模拟与流场重构 ····························· 77  


              三、气动热环境与材料表面的多物理场/ 多尺度耦合作用  


                    机制 ···································································· 79  


      第五节  未来发展重点与建议 ················································· 84  


      参考文献 ············································································ 86  


第六章  飞行器流动控制问题 ············································ 87  


      第一节  问题提出 ································································ 87  


      第二节  相关研究发展态势 ···················································· 88  


              一、格尼襟翼 ······························································ 88  


              二、涡流发生器 ··························································· 89  


              三、仿生流动控制技术 ·················································· 90  


              四、环量控制 ······························································ 91  


              五、合成射流 ······························································ 92  


              六、等离子体激励器 ····················································· 93  


      第三节  当前面临的需求与挑战 ·············································· 94  


              一、技术性问题 ··························································· 94  


              二、可靠性问题 ··························································· 95  


              三、工艺性问题 ··························································· 95  


      第四节  未来发展建议 ·························································· 96  


              一、先进实验技术及数值方法研究 ··································· 96  


              二、流动控制基础研究 ·················································· 96  


              三、流动控制应用研究 ·················································· 96  


              四、流动控制新方法研究 ··············································· 97  


              五、飞行器总体及流动控制应用一体化设计研究 ················· 97  


              六、发展路径及可行性分析 ············································ 97  


      参考文献 ············································································ 97  
      


第七章  飞行器低雷诺数流动问题 ····································· 99  


      第一节  问题提出 ································································ 99  


      第二节  相关研究发展态势 ··················································· 100  


              一、经典层流分离泡理论及相关的新发现 ························· 101  


              二、低雷诺数气动特性的非线性特征 ······························· 105  


              三、低雷诺数流动的数值模拟和风洞试验 ························· 107  


              四、低雷诺数流动三维效应 ··········································· 111  


      第三节  当前面临的需求和挑战 ············································· 112  


              一、低雷诺数效应对飞行器性能的影响 ···························· 112  


              二、低雷诺数气动特性预测精度 ····································· 113  


              三、低雷诺数流动机理、演化规律及低雷诺数效应的有效  


                   抑制 ··································································· 114  


              四、低雷诺数飞行器伴随的飞行力学响应和气动弹性问题 ····· 115  


      参考文献 ············································································ 116  


第八章  新型空天推进系统中的力学问题 ··························· 118  


      第一节  问题提出 ······························································· 118  


      第二节  相关研究发展态势 ··················································· 119  


              一、新型推进系统基本原理 ··········································· 119  


              二、高超声速流动机理及控制理论研究 ···························· 123  


              三、超声速燃烧机理及燃烧增强机制研究 ························· 125  


              四、超声速传热机理及先进发动机热防护方法研究 ············· 128  


      第三节  当前面临的需求与挑战 ············································· 130  


              一、超燃冲压发动机 ···················································· 130  


              二、爆震发动机 ·························································· 131  


              三、组合循环发动机 ···················································· 132  


      第四节  未来发展建议 ························································· 133  


      参考文献 ············································································ 134  
      

第九章  飞行器轻质结构力学问题 ···································· 135  


     第一节  问题提出 ······························································· 135  


     第二节  新概念飞行器结构优化设计理论 ································· 136  


            一、新一代结构拓扑优化理论与方法 ······························· 136  


            二、多目标多约束近似模型的优化理论与方法 ··················· 137  


            三、飞行器非确定性结构优化设计理论与方法 ··················· 137  


            四、面向考虑制造特征的飞行器结构优化理论与方法 ·········· 137  


     第三节  新概念飞行器结构力学 ············································· 138  


            一、可展开结构力学性能分析与设计 ······························· 138  


            二、智能结构力学性能分析与设计 ·································· 139  


            三、整体结构力学性能分析与设计 ·································· 139  


            四、考虑集中力扩散的结构力学性能分析与设计 ················ 140  


     第四节  未来发展建议 ························································· 140  


     参考文献 ··········································································· 141  


第十章  多功能/智能材料与微系统力学问题 ······················· 143  


     第一节  问题提出 ······························································· 143  


     第二节  相关研究发展态势 ··················································· 145  


            一、基于压电材料的振动控制系统 ·································· 145  


            二、自给、自感知与自适应智能微系统 ···························· 146  


            三、植物物质运输多功能系统与仿真系统 ························· 147  


            四、自愈合材料与微系统 ·············································· 148  


            五、基于柔性介电弹性体材料的变形结构 ························· 149  


            六、基于智能材料的变体飞行器结构 ······························· 150  


            七、基于高应变聚合物复合材料的空间可展开结构 ············· 151  


            八、基于形状记忆聚合物复合材料的空间可展开结构 ·········· 152  


            九、力学相关方向发展态势 ··········································· 153  


     第三节  当前面临的需求与挑战 ············································· 156  


            一、主动大变形纤维增强复合材料的力学行为 ··················· 156  


            二、变形/承载一体化、变刚度的多功能材料技术 ··············· 157  


            三、多物理场耦合作用条件下的多功能材料力学行为 ·········· 157  


            四、轻质/ 大输出力的驱动材料及其器件技术 ····················· 158  


     第四节  未来发展建议 ························································· 158  


            一、自感知、自适应多功能材料与微系统的设计与研制 ······· 159  


            二、主动大变形复合材料及其结构的力学行为研究 ············· 159  


            三、多功能材料与微系统多场耦合条件下的本构理论研究 ····· 160  


            四、多功能材料与微系统的结构力学性能和失效行为表征 ····· 160  


     参考文献 ············································································ 161  


第十一章  高温材料与结构力学问题 ································· 162  


     第一节  问题提出 ······························································· 162  


     第二节  相关研究发展态势 ··················································· 164  


     第三节  当前面临的需求与挑战 ············································· 169  


            一、高温性能测试与表征技术的局限性 ···························· 169  


            二、高温材料体系的复杂性 ··········································· 170  


            三、高温本构关系与强度理论的挑战性 ···························· 170  


            四、材料高温行为研究的多学科性 ·································· 171  


     第四节  未来发展建议 ························································· 171  


     参考文献 ············································································ 172  


第十二章  多物理化学场耦合力学问题 ······························ 173  


     第一节  问题提出 ······························································· 173  


     第二节  相关研究发展态势 ··················································· 174  


            一、体烧蚀问题日益受到重视 ········································ 175  


            二、局部细观烧蚀与氧化损伤受到广泛关注 ······················ 176  


            三、烧蚀过程的多物理机制耦合现象凸显 ························· 178  


            四、非平衡烧蚀及非空气介质烧蚀在防热分析中的重要性  


                提高 ··································································· 179  


            五、力/热/氧综合考核及多变量测试技术需求明显 ·············· 180  


     第三节  当前面临的需求与挑战 ············································· 181  


            一、高声速飞行器不同气动加热环境下材料耐热极限的确定  


                 与准确预示 ·························································· 181  


            二、防热材料与结构向轻质、薄层、高可靠方向发展,但现  


                 有研究基础仍难以对材料的工艺改进做出有效支撑 ······· 182  


            三、化学动力学基本参数及烧蚀传热中的基础物性参数缺乏 ····· 182  


            四、可用于基础研究表征物理/化学反应耦合现象的实验  


                 与测试手段不足 ···················································· 183  


     第四节  未来发展建议 ························································· 183  


            一、复杂组分与复杂形态化学反应特性与宏观烧蚀建模  


                 研究 ··································································· 183  


            二、材料细观烧蚀原理与建模研究 ·································· 183  


            三、材料体烧蚀原理与建模研究 ····································· 184  


            四、非稳态流动、燃烧与非附着流动的烧蚀建模问题 ·········· 184  


            五、材料氧化、流失、内部热解过程等与气体流动的综合  


                 建模与模拟 ·························································· 184  


            六、烧蚀建模及理论预测的不确定度研究 ························· 185  


            七、复杂力/热加载条件的地面模拟再现试验与测试技术 ······ 185  


     参考文献 ··········································································· 185  


第十三章  大尺寸航天器结构动力学问题 ··························· 187  


     第一节  问题提出 ······························································· 187  


     第二节  相关研究发展态势 ··················································· 190  


            一、柔性附件展开动力学 ·············································· 190  


            二、充液航天器动力学 ················································· 191  


            三、组合体柔性动力学 ················································· 192  


            四、不确定性动力学 ··················································· 193  


            五、连接结构非线性动力学 ··········································· 194  


            六、大型动力学试验 ···················································· 195  


     第三节  当前面临的需求与挑战 ············································· 196  


            一、充液航天器动力学 ················································· 196  


             二、组合体柔性动力学 ················································· 196  


             三、不确定性动力学 ···················································· 197  


             四、连接结构非线性动力学 ··········································· 197  


             五、大型动力学试验 ···················································· 197  


      第四节  未来发展建议 ························································· 197  


      参考文献 ············································································ 198  


第十四章  高超声速飞行器结构动力学问题 ························ 200  


      第一节  问题提出 ······························································· 200  


      第二节  飞行器动态载荷环境特征 ·········································· 202  


             一、飞行器载荷量级高 ················································· 202  


             二、气动热环境严酷 ···················································· 203  


             三、多次、重复载荷环境 ·············································· 204  


      第三节  当前面临的需求与挑战 ············································· 204  


             一、大型复杂结构动力学建模与仿真 ······························· 205  


             二、结构声振耦合响应分析问题 ····································· 205  


             三、高超声速飞行器气动弹性与热气动弹性问题 ················ 205  


             四、高超声速飞行器气动伺服弹性与热气动伺服弹性问题 ····· 206  


             五、热防护结构/热结构损伤与寿命评估问题 ····················· 206  


             六、飞行器高温动力学响应分析问题 ······························· 207  


             七、飞行器力热复合试验技术问题 ·································· 208  


      第四节  未来发展建议 ························································· 208  


      参考文献 ············································································ 209  


第十五章  高超声速风洞气动试验数据相关理论与关联方法 ··· 210  


      第一节  问题提出 ······························································· 210  


      第二节  风洞数据相关性研究进展 ·········································· 212  


             一、高超声速风洞实验技术发展 ····································· 212  


             二、气动力关联方法研究进展 ········································ 214  


             三、气动热关联方法研究进展 ········································ 215  


      第三节  风洞实验数据多空间相关理论 ···································· 217  


      第四节  泛函优化数据关联方法 ············································· 219  


      第五节  相关理论和关联方法的验证与应用 ······························ 221  


      第六节  当前面临的需求和挑战 ············································· 227  


      第七节  未来发展建议 ························································· 228  


      参考文献 ··········································································· 229  


第十六章  验证和确认与不确定性量化问题 ························ 231  


      第一节  问题提出 ······························································· 231  


      第二节  相关研究发展态势 ··················································· 233  


             一、建模与模拟的验证与确认方法论 ······························· 233  


             二、模型验证与确认在飞行器结构分析中的应用 ················· 235  


             三、基于非确定性的结构设计 ········································ 238  


             四、不确定性量化方法 ················································· 239  


      第三节  当前面临的需求与挑战 ············································· 242  


             一、复杂环境下先进飞行器系统不确定源辨识及表征 ·········· 242  


             二、模型确认方法需要进一步发展与完善 ························· 243  


             三、先进飞行器系统高效不确定多学科优化设计 ················ 244  


             四、试验能力与成本限制带来的挑战 ······························· 244  


      第四节  未来发展建议 ························································· 245  


      参考文献 ··········································································· 247  


第十七章  虚拟试验与数字孪生问题 ································· 249  


      第一节  问题提出 ······························································· 249  


      第二节  相关研究发展态势 ··················································· 251  


             一、复合材料结构虚拟测试技术现状 ······························· 251  


             二、复合材料结构虚拟测试的常用软件与发展方向 ············· 253  


             三、利用 “数字孪生”方法进行飞行器结构寿命预测的概念  


                  内涵 ··································································· 254  

      第三节  当前面临的需求与挑战 ············································· 257  


             一、多场耦合分析方法 ················································· 257  


             二、多尺度破坏建模 ···················································· 257  


             三、将结构有限元与破坏模型紧密结合 ···························· 258  


              四、不确定性的定量、建模和控制 ·································· 258  


             五、对共享的大数据库的操作 ········································ 259  


             六、高分辨率的结构分析能力 ········································ 259  


      第四节  未来发展建议 ························································· 259  


      参考文献 ············································································ 261  


第十八章  力学前沿与创新应用问题 ································· 262  


      第一节  问题提出 ······························································· 262  


      第二节  仿生力学与未来飞行器 ············································· 263  


      第三节  软体机器人与可变形飞行器 ······································· 264  


      第四节  基于柔性电子技术的智能蒙皮/隐身/人机融合飞行器 ······ 266  


      第五节  神经网络动力学与未来飞行器 ···································· 268  


      第六节  智能健康监测与未来飞行器 ······································· 270  


      参考文献 ············································································ 272  


关键词索引 ·································································· 274  

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